Transcribed Henry J. Ledet
Calcote: We're happy to have you talking with us about oral history this morning. Why don't you start off by telling us a little about yourself.
Moak: My name is Tom Moak. The name on my birth certificate is Thomas Lynwood Moak and oddly enough the date is March 5, 1922, which means that I am 65 years old today.
Calcote: Congratulations and happy birthday.
Moak: Thank you very much. I am a native Lincoln Countian and I was born in Norfield, Mississippi. Norfield is a town that was established about 1886, a sawmill town. As sawmill towns go it was a large sawmill town. The mill produced as much as 250,000 board feet of lumber in just one ten hour shift. By comparison, the largest mills in this area today do not produce that much lumber in twenty-four hours. The mill operated for more than forty years and was established by two men; one named Norwood and the other Butterfield. From the two names they came up with the name of "Norfield." The company was first called Norwood and Butterfield Lumber Company, but Mr. Norwood left the company and it became the Butterfield Lumber Company. The Butterfield family operated the mill until about 1920 and then sold it to the Denkmann family who ran it until 1932 when it ceased to operate. The reasons for the closing of the mill were because of the depression and there not being enough timber to supply a mill of that size. In fact, for the last several years of the mill's operation the logs were hauled from Pearl River County on the then Gulf and Ship Island Railroad and transferred to the company's own railroad at Oakvale, Mississippi. The company's railroad was called the Natchez, Columbia and Mobile Railroad, and oddly enough did not go to any of those places. It was one of many short railroads of that time and ran from Norfield to Oakvale in Marion County. It was of standard gauge and the rolling stock consisted of five or six engines and about 350 log cars. They not only hauled their own logs, but the "local" as it was called carried a passenger coach, the mail and various other merchandise and box cars. My father came to work for the Butterfields in 1899 and remained with the company for as long as it operated. He became "roadmaster" of the railroad and allowed me to go with him on the trains and motorcars that he rode from time to time. My father's name was Samuel D. Moak, also a native of Lincoln County as was his father. He was raised in a little community named Sweetwater in the southeast part of the county. After he came to Norfield he married a lady named Louvella Brister, but she did not live for long and only one child was born to them, my half-brother Harry L. Moak. My mother, the former Nellie Sasser, was born in Wesson, Mississippi and moved to Brookhaven with her parents when she was 14 years old. She came to Norfield in 1913 as a private teacher for the Butterfield children. My father began to see her and married her in 1915. At the time she was 30 and he was 38 and I was not born until eight years later. My brother, Joe S. Moak, was born some two years later and my parents continued to live in Norfield until my father died in 1969. They were married for 54 years; she died in 1970. Before we leave my immediate family I think we should talk some about the Moak family in Lincoln County.
The Moak family came to what was at that time Pike County and is now Lincoln County in 1811. Andrew Moak came from Sax Gotha Township South Carolina with his wife, her sister and three small children. Four more children were born to them before she died. Then he married the sister-in-law who had come to Mississippi with them. To that union ten more children were born and all seventeen lived to maturity. There were offspring from all but the youngest who was killed at the Battle of Shiloh during the Civil War. I came from the third of those seventeen children who was Henry A. Moak. His son, Henry A. Moak, Jr., was my grandfather. Andrew Moak's grandfather came to America in 1740 and landed at Philadelphia, PA. He was also named Andrew.
Calcote: Well, you certainly do have the advantage of a good perspective to view the history of the county and your interest here. We know that you are on the library board and the library board has pushed for and has been instrumental in seeking out the history of Brookhaven. When did you first become interested in local history? It seems from what you've said, all along.
Moak: It has been kind of a gradual thing because interest in your own family's history and the history of your area seems to develop as we grow older. I was discharged from service in World War II in January of 1946 and came home to find that two cousins were working on a history of the Moak family. They were Dr. Frank Moak who is on the staff at the University of Mississippi and Lenox Moak who was Financial Director for the city of Philadelphia, PA. With the two of them supplying the scholarly effort and others of us doing some leg work, a Moak family history was published in 1960.
The history began with Andrew Moak who came to America in 1740 aboard a ship named St. Andrew with Captain Steadman in charge. Dr. Frank Moak discovered this and other information by writing to the Department of Archives and History of the state of South Carolina. He asked how far back the records of the state went and if they were available for research. The reply from South Carolina stated that the records were too fragile to allow searching, but if a page and book number could be given, a copy could be obtained. The letter also stated that a lady who had once been in charge of the department had done some card cataloging of the minutes of the Council of South Carolina and that she might be able to help us. When contacted she stated that the name Moak did appear in her files and that for a fee of $100.00 she would furnish us with the page and book number. The copies of the minutes revealed the information that has already been given plus these other details:
Andrew Moak was indeed Andrew Mog which indicates that he came from Switzerland. In the document that released Andrew Moak from seven years of indentured service owed to Benjamin Godwin (who had purchased it from Captain Steadman), Andrew Moak signed his name as "Andrew Mog" but his name appears in the body of the document as "Andrew Moak." "Mog" probably sounded like "Moak" when given verbally to a clerk. Moak has been his name ever since.
Andrew Moak had a son named Jacob who was the father of Andrew Moak who came to this area in 1811.
Calcote: So your family came directly there from Pennsylvania?
Moak: He landed in Philadelphia, but was probably taken directly to South Carolina.
Calcote: Did he get a land grant at that time?
Moak: He was given a land grant at that time and that was an important event in our family research. It is a little bit strange that just an ordinary person can leave such a paper trail. If he owned land, owed a secured debt, did military service or was listed in a census, a record was made and kept.
Calcote: What kind of business was he in? Did he farm?
Moak: He farmed.
Calcote: Cotton or--
Moak: Cotton and corn, the other things that grew here. We don't know any of the family except the last two or three generations who did anything but farming. The last two or three generations have branched out to other things: business, education and medicine.
Calcote: Are there particular Moaks who have been instrumental in some phase or facet of the county's life?
Moak: I would say no more than ordinary people. In all of the more than 3500 names that appear in the book, the Moak Family History, we did not find anybody who had ever done anything that might be called outstanding. Fortunately, we didn't find anybody who had done anything that was so terribly bad. They just seemed to be people in the mainstream of community life.
I have with me a book, The Mississippi Baptist Association, 1806 to 1906. It contains excerpts from the minutes of each of the 100 association meetings for those years. The Mississippi Baptist Association is not to be confused with the Mississippi Baptist Convention which is made up of all the County Associations in the state, but is actually the Amite County Association. Since it was the first Baptist Association, many churches belonged to it at one time or another: First Baptist Church of Baton Rouge and First Baptist Church of New Orleans and others. As time passed, member churches would withdraw to form other associations. In the minutes of 1864 Summit Baptist Church is listed as the host church and only twelve delegates are listed as being in attendance. My great grandfather, Henry Moak, Sr., was one of the twelve. No, nothing outstanding, but just involved in what was going on in the community.
Calcote: Do you recall any stories your father or your grandfather told you that might be particularly appropriate or interesting, about how they first settled here?
Moak: Oh, yes.
Calcote: Any one in particular?
Moak: The Andrew Moak who came to the Pike County area in 1811 came down the Natchez Trace until he came to where Jackson is now and then headed south. My father told me that he remembers his grandfather telling him about them coming to this area but the reason for their coming, and if there was some special attraction is not known to us. They settled in the Moak's Creek area, on a small stream on the east side of the Bogue Chitto River. The creek was a tributary of the Bogue Chitto River and came to be know as Moak's Creek. There were clear springs on the creek, plenty of good timber to cut to build a log house, and rich bottom land to be cleared. From what has been handed down to us by word-of-mouth we believe that all of their possessions were packed in a large barrel called a hogshead with an axle through it so that horses could be hooked to it, thus rolling it along the way.
The house that was built stood until the early 1940's when it finally rotted down. It could have been preserved, but the title was somewhat nebulous--which probably accounts for it being allowed to deteriorate. However, there were many pictures of the house and a descendant, Elmer Moak of McComb, Mississippi constructed a model of the early 1800's south Mississippi farmstead. The model is now in the Old Capitol in Jackson.
Calcote: And you have seen this house.
Moak: Yes, many times. The site is well marked, the old family cemetery is still there.
Calcote: Do you have a picture that the library could copy for its files?
Moak: No, I do not have one of my one, but I'm sure I can get you one.
Calcote: This is certainly a fascinating story of an early Mississippi family. I can appreciate that you have a deep interest in this area. You mentioned railroads and that you have been interested in railroads for many years. We know that Brookhaven was on the line of a main railroad. What sort of an impact did the railroads make on early Brookhaven or on the life of Brookhaven as it continued to grow?
Moak: One of the problems that the people who came to this country form Europe faces was transportation. They had come from a land where whole countries were not as large as many of our states. With this great expanse of land, how were they going to get from one place to the other? Even the early railroads multiplied speeds by tenfold over horses and wagons that traveled three or four miles an hour.
Whenever the railroads went, development followed. The Illinois Central Railroad was already here and in place during the Civil War. Some of the people who developed Brookhaven and were instrumental in its growth were people who traveled up and down the railroad during the war and saw the great stands of pine timber. Sawmills were first built on the main lines and then all kinds of small lines began to spur off into other tracts of timber. There have been at least four or five small railroads in Lincoln County that no longer exist.
Calcote: Going east and west?
Moak: Mainly east and west, the railroad that I was familiar with was the Natchez, Columbia and Mobile Railroad which began with three miles of track being built eastward across the Bogue Chitto River from Norfield just to log that particular area. Nearly half of this first section of the NC&M was a wooden trestle that crossed the Bogue Chitto River swamp. Otherwise, there would have been times when the river would have flooded the road bed. The standard procedure for nearly all of the mills was to set up logging camps as the railroad extended further into the timbered areas. The camp areas were numbered as they moved farther and farther away, camp number one, camp number two, camp number three and so on.
Calcote: Do you feel that these railroads were established for the lumber industry? Or was cotton a factor in their move?
Moak: No, they were mainly built for the lumber industry. And when the timber was cut out and the sawmills no longer existed the railroads were taken up.
Calcote: And what year? Would that have been in the 'thirties?
Moak: The NC&M was taken up in 1932, but it was the last one. There were others: The Moreton-Hellum mill was south of Brookhaven at Cold Springs with its own railroad; the Brister Mill was at Bogue Chitto with its own railroad; the Keystone Mill was between Ruth and Enterprise and it has its own short line; and there were others. These railroads were not built to last, the crossties were not treated and the rails were considerably smaller than those used on the long line railroads.
To begin with the logs were brought to the edge of the track and loaded with horses and mules, but this all ended with industrial development taking place and mechanical equipment being introduced. One piece of steam powered equipment was the skidder. It operated by pulling long cables out into the forest and dragging the logs to the side of the tracks. Then steam powered loaders hoisted the logs onto specially built cars to transport them to the mill.
Calcote: How would you compare the lumber industry of this area with anywhere else in the South, say Mobile or Pensacola? Was this as large?
Moak: This was as large as any because of the source of raw materials. The mill was sitting in the middle of "virgin pine-fir forest," so called, because it had never been harvested. The species cut by nearly all the mills was long leaf yellow pine, which grew much slower than the other variety of pines that we now have in this area. However, over the years the tree grew very tall and straight with very dense, close grained hearts. The canopy of the forest (the canopy being the branches and leaves) became so thick that almost nothing grew under it. For acres and acres there was just the tall pine tree and the clean clear forest floor. It was possible for a team of horses and a wagon to drive almost anywhere in the forest.
Calcote: Was this virgin timber?
Moak: Yes, it was timber that had never been harvested. It was not unusual for a tree to be 100 feet tall and have as many as 200 growth rings. Attrition had played its part over the years so they were not likely the first trees that were ever here, but they were the first to ever be harvested. In those days the quality of lumber was very important and because of this considerable waste took place. They cut the stumps high and took nothing above the first limb. Today all of the tree is used. If it can not be used for lumber or pulp, what is left is used for fuel. Reforestation was rarely practiced in the early days of the lumber industry.
Calcote: Was the lumber shipped north or to the gulf?
Moak: Most of it was shipped north.
Calcote: On the railroads?
Moak: On the railroads, the mainline railroads like the Illinois Central and the Southern.
Calcote: So they were not shipped to a port to be shipped out.
Moak: No. Not much lumber was exported, most of it was shipped to the North. My father told me about a special order that the Butterfield Lumber Company got from a contractor in Chicago who was doing work on Marshall Field's Store. As I remember, the timbers needed to be 12" x 16" and 72' long and the specifications called for 95% heart. I do not think there is a tree growing in Mississippi today that such a timber could be cut from, but by being rather selective the order was filled and shipped from Norfield to Chicago.
Calcote: Let me see if I can tie in a few other perceptions or comments. The idea that this was such a huge industry in the area must have generated a lot of money. Let's talk about the huge fortunes that were made (I suppose they were), the impact that it made on Brookhaven. I talked with Mr. Henry W. Hobbs, Jr. who commented that 1910 to 1920 was the Golden Age of Brookhaven. What happened in Brookhaven and the area in relation to the timber industry between 1910 and 1920?
Moak: From 1910 to 1920, the industry really was at its zenith. The market was terrific. The was took some of the production and they could manufacture it cheaply. Labor was not a problem. And you were right, huge amounts of money were made.
Calcote: Were made by--
Moak: By the owners.
Calcote: And were the owners in the state or were they from out of the state?
Moak: In some cases here in Brookhaven the owners were local, and when the Butterfields owned the mill at Norfield they lived in Norfield, but when they sold it to the Denkmanns there was never a Denkmann by name who lived in Norfield. Hammond Louisiana was the closest.
Calcote: So the money probably went out of state.
Moak: Yes. The profits from the operation went out of state, but the payroll and much of the money spent on raw materials and supplies stayed in the state.
Calcote: What else would be going on between 1910 and 1920? Building of homes? Farming?
Moak: Farming was big. Farms were being operated and homes were being built. You see, as late as 1953 more than 10,000 bales of cotton were being ginned here in Lincoln County. There were probably five or six cotton gins running at that time and that was a lot of cotton for Lincoln County. With the corn and other crops this meant that there was a lot of row-cropping going on. The problem of row-cropping in a hill county like ours is that the land had to be terraced which meant lost of short rows and lots of crooked rows. There were many large families during this time and many of them owned their won farms and many others were tenants or sharecroppers. My father engaged in this and at one time had five families who were living and working on his place. One year sixty bales of cotton were produced on his place and this year, 1987, to my knowledge, no cotton was planted in Lincoln County. No cotton gins now operate now in Lincoln County which means that much change in agriculture has taken place in a very short time. But in those days, farming was the thing and cotton was the crop. It could be converted into cash quickly and grown rather economically.
Calcote: But the price was high.
Moak: It was high enough to be profitable, but of course when the depression came the bottom dropped out of the price of cotton.
Calcote: And the railroads were going out?
Moak: Yes, some of the smaller ones had gone out, but the larger main lines remained. But back to the price of cotton: During the depression a 500 pound bale of cotton sold for as little as $25.00. It took a lot of work to produce a bale of cotton.
Calcote: And the depression saw the end of row-cropping, or certainly a decrease.
Moak: No, row-cropping continued after the depression into the early fifties. Farm folks did not have much choice, they fought it out.
Calcote: That's most interesting. Let's follow that with a discussion--you mentioned your family had been very strong supporters of the Baptist Church and that you have a great interest in the history of the Baptist Church in the area.
Moak: Yes. The Baptist movement came to this area in 1806 with a man whose name was Richard Curtis. He came from the Cumberland area of Tennessee and being by vocation a preacher, he established a church. He settled in Amite County and named the church Salem. At that time, the Spanish and Catholic influence was very strong in the area. It seems that in those days the different denominations did not get along as well as they do today. The Spanish government opposed Mr. Curtis so strongly that he feared for his own safety. He was spirited out of the area by friends and returned to Tennessee. Friends supplied him with a horse and food and he traveled by night until he felt he was safe. He remained in Tennessee for two or three years until he received word that changes had taken place and the Spanish had become more tolerant. Mr. Curtis' return is one of the interesting stories in the book that I mentioned earlier. When he went back to Tennessee he did not take his family with him, so I am sure that the closer he got to home the more anxious he was to see his wife and children. It so happened that on Saturday night he was very close to home and when he awakened on Sunday morning he decided that since his destination would be his church that it would be alright for him to travel on the Sabbath. He began the final portion of his journey early and arrived at the church before time for services but before his family had gotten there. His friends prevailed upon him to conduct the services and he accepted. He sat down behind a large wooden pulpit which hid him from most of the congregation and began to prepare his sermon. In the mean time, his wife and family arrived and took their seats, not knowing that their husband and father was there. When he stood up to preach, his wife was so overcome that she fainted and the service had to be stopped until she could be cared for. Richard Curtis went on to establish other churches and eventually the Mississippi Baptist Association which had many churches as members. To demonstrate the writing style of that time, I would like to read a few lines from the book. It is about a man named Zachariah Reeves who was a relative of my wife, and mine too. The Moaks and Reeves came to this area at the same time and since there were very few other people around there were many Moak-Reeves and Reeves-Moak marriages. It was after we were married that we discovered that we were cousins in at least three different ways. I read from the book.
Zachariah Reeves was born in the Richland district of south Carolina October 31, 1799. Early in 1811 his parents removed from South Carolina and during the month of February of that same year, they located in Pike County, Mississippi, then a territory. He grew to manhood among the early scenes of hard work and joyous life strong in the power of bodily endurance and vigorous in native thought of mind. Without this preparation it is questionable whether he would have performed the work in the ministry which his long and zealous labors among the churches of the Mississippi Association abundantly showed. He married early in life, the partner of his choice being Miss Anna Wells, a young lady of respectable parents. They were Presbyterians. Some objections were raised by the parents of the young lady to the marriage. As, however, there was a mutual understanding between Mr. Reeves and Miss Wells, any objection or obstacle thrown in the way of those who had privately plighted their troth would only strengthen their determination to consummate their wishes. They soon found an opportunity to carry out their desires. It was not long before all parties became reconciled. Mrs. Reeves was a pious woman. At this time Mr. Reeves was not a Christian. He was fond of worldly amusements and enjoyed them with great zest. In 1823, he was hopefully converted and in the month of June of this year he as baptized into the fellowship of Friendship Baptist Church by Elder Absalom Harper. This church was situated about six miles north of Summit in Pike County. Prior to his conversion, Mr. Reeves was a deeply irreligious man. He was fond of gay associates and the gathering of young persons for various amusements of the day. Frequently would he ride a dozen miles after a day's work to be present at a party and yet lose no time from his work in the field the next day. His conversion however was genuine. It was not only a change of the intellect but of his moral nature. His love o things had been transformed. What was once irksome now became a delight. There was a sure foundation for a better life. No objects than these he once perused inspired his renewed nature. The conference meeting of the church was to him a pleasure no less than a duty. He felt that he was a soldier in the sacramental host of God's people and that it was his duty to be present in the drill and march and battle of that army which God had chosen for the subjugation of a hostile world and the enlisting of that world under a new banner and under a new commander even Christ the captain of his salvation.
Calcote: Beautifully worded--and this is from what book?
Moak: This book is titled The Mississippi Baptist Association 1806-1906. It contains excerpts from the yearly associational minutes for those hundred years. There are some interesting things that develop as this century passes. The first mention of alcoholic beverages is that it was stated in the minutes of one of the meetings that they thought it would be better if the delegates refrained from bringing it to the meetings which usually last for two or three days because it had caused some trouble. From this first mentioning of the problem over the years, it developed to the point that in almost every meeting a brother would rise to denounce the menace of demon alcohol.
Calcote: So it wasn't necessarily that they had always made that statement.
Moak: No, they made most of it themselves and they probably thought that they did not have to answer to anyone, they probably considered it to be their own business. Another thing that is seen to develop is that they did not necessarily seem to believe in an educated ministry. But over the years they came to believe very strongly in religious education. They came to support Mississippi College (their own college) to the point that any minister worth his salt would have to be a product of that institution.
Calcote: So we see the evolution of--
Moak: Yes, change took place over the years as people's thoughts and attitudes changed.
Calcote: That is most interesting. You were speaking of the railroads in Brookhaven. Which came first?
Moak: As I understand it, what we now call "Ole Brook" down on what is old 51 Highway near where it crossed the Bogue Chitto River is where the original settlement was located. When the railroad came through it missed the settlement by about a mile. There were two things that determined the location of the railroad: where they wanted it to go, and the terrain, that is where could they put it and have the fewest hills and the least dirt to move. So you will notice that as the Illinois Central leaves New Orleans it comes right up the flat area that comes out of the coastal area. It then works its way through hills south of McComb and then into the Bogue Chitto River Valley bringing it to just south of Brookhaven. The first big hill that is encountered is as the railroad comes into Brookhaven from the south and continues on to a point about one and one half miles north of town. If one stands on the railroad in downtown Brookhaven and looks south, he will notice that it is downhill and if he looks north, it is uphill. In the days of steam engines it was not uncommon at all for a train to stall down at either Chickasaw or Cherokee Street and have another engine assist or cut the train in half and move it north of town to level ground and then return for the rest of the train. The top of the hill north of town has an elevation of nearly 500 feet and then down hill to Jackson which is about 235 feet elevation. So terrain was a very important factor in the location of a railroad.
Pat Allen: This part of Brookhaven that we consider downtown came after the railroad.
Moak: Yes it was after the railroad and at that time it was desirable to have a town located on the railroad. In fact, they thought it very desirable for the railroad to go through the middle of town. After the Illinois Central came, the Mississippi Central was built from Natchez to Hattiesburg. I spent some time this summer trying to locate the engine that pulled the passenger train on the Mississippi Central and did find some of the people who had owned it. A little short line railroad called the Wilmington Western in Delaware had used the engine for weekend excursions, but had moved it to another location. Some of those old steam engines can still be seen in parks and town squares. One of the engines owned by the Natchez, Columbia and Mobile Railroad can be seen in Georgetown. It left Norfield to go to Canton where it was used to haul logs on the Canton and Carthage Railroad and was last used by Green Brothers Gravel Company in Franklinton, Louisiana.
Calcote: The Butterfields, who were into the lumber industry, did they ever live in Brookhaven?
Moak: At the beginning they lived in Norfield. Three very large homes in Norfield belonged to the Butterfields.
Calcote: In Norfield?
Moak: Yes, though that was before my time. I knew the Butterfield houses because my father worked for them and they were good friends. Shortly before the Butterfields sold out the Mrs. Butterfield who was the wife of the president died and he later remarried. The lady that Mr. Butterfield married wanted to live in Brookhaven, so he built a house in Brookhaven which still stands. It is on Storm Avenue and is now owned by David Lovell(1). Robert E. Jones, who is a lifelong resident of Brookhaven, is the grandson of the first Mrs. Butterfield and he has some history of the Butterfield Lumber Company. When the Butterfields moved to Brookhaven there were many passenger trains running from New Orleans to Chicago so Mr. Butterfield came to Norfield every day on a morning train and back to Brookhaven on a late afternoon train. This, however, was not done for a very long time because it was not long before the Denkmanns bought the mill. The general manager of the new company was Mr. Carl Freiler. Since the company owned the town, Mr. Freiler was also the mayor. The tax base for operating the town and the school was almost totally from the lumber company. We had one of the finest schools in the state with a low teacher-pupil ratio, a home economics department, a fine library, science laboratory and a gymnasium. The school was called Denkmann High School.
Calcote: And the money all came from the industry.
Moak: Not all of the money came from the lumber company, but the part that made up for the extras was certainly because of the contribution made by the Denkmann Lumber Company. With the closing of the 1933-34 school year, the school at Norfield would be no more. The lumber company had left enough money to run the school for two years as a grammar school only and beginning with the 1934-35 year, we all transferred to Bogue Chitto which at the time was considered quite a step down for most of us. But we soon made the adjustment and found that the depression had more or less put most of us on the same level.
The company owned houses were sold for only a fraction of what they had cost, from a few hundred dollars down to as little as $25.00. The houses were all taken down and used to construct houses in other places. My father bought the company office and built our home with most of it. There occurred among the long leaf yellow pine trees a kind of deformity that caused the grain to grow in a curly pattern. These trees were culled for many years, but it was finally discovered that there was a market for curly pine paneling. There were several rooms of this in the office and it was successfully removed and used in our house. The house is still standing.
My father was offered a job in Canton, Mississippi where the mill relocated, but he chose to remain in Norfield. The company then sold him the more than two hundred acres of the town site which he converted into farm land.
Calcote: Well, Mr. Moak, this has been enjoyable and interesting time with you. We appreciate your sharing this information and we hope to talk to you again.
Moak: I hope we can because I have enjoyed it.
Calcote: I think there are many things we have not talked about.
Moak: Maybe we can take what we have talked about today and see if we want to go further. People who like to talk and tell stories sometimes not only feel the urge but also think they have license to embellish just to make it sound good. I do not think I have done that; perhaps that can be done if we talk again, because there have been some interesting things that have happened along the way.
Calcote: Thank you very much.
Reference: 1. 412 Storm Avenue.